Is there a way to create lessons/quizzes/assignments in Canvas and share them with other teachers?
Yes, you can share to the Commons. Then other teachers can access your shared lessons through the commons and load them to their own classes.
Another way that you can share if teachers frequently plan together is by creating a master course and using that master course to do all of the planning and creating. Once you have a module, assignment, page, quiz, etc ready to use in your your student course, you can use the import content feature to easily import from your master course.